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About ORB:

Who We Are and What We Do: Contributors

See also editorial board | technical staff

STEPHEN ALSFORD received an M.Phil in history from Leicester University in 1983, followed by an MLIS from the University of Western Ontario in 1988. Since that time he has worked for the Canadian Museum of Civilization in roles related to research and planning; in 1994 he created the Museum's Web site and remains Webmaster at the Museum today. He has had published a number of books and articles in the field of museology (particularly with reference to the application of new technologies in museums), on the subject of Martin Frobisher's Arctic expeditions, and in medieval history. His particular interests are medieval urban history and prosopography, which have been combined over the last several years in a study of town clerks of medieval England, with a view to elucidating the development of local bureaucracy and archival practices, the spread of lay learning, and the development of the legal profession.

CATHERINE N. BALL is an associate professor of Linguistics at Georgetown University, where she teaches courses in Old English, computational linguistics, and corpus linguistics. Her dissertation on "The Historical Development of the It-Cleft" (University of Pennsylvania, 1991) led to a consuming interest in Old English and Anglo-Saxon England, which she indulges by developing materials for the World Wide Web (Hwæt!, Apollonius of Tyre, and Old English Pages). Her articles on historical linguistics and electronic text analysis have appeared in Language Variation and Change, Journal of Pragmatics, and Literary and Linguistic Computing; her other research interests include educational technology, plagiarism, and (dead) language acquisition.

MALCOLM BARBER is Professor of History at the University of Reading, England. He has published two books on the Templars, The Trial of the Templars (Cambridge, 1978) and The New Knighthood (Cambridge, 1994), and a general history of medieval Europe in the central middle ages, The Two Cities. Medieval Europe, 1050-1320 (London, 1992). His main interests are in the crusades, military orders, the Cathars, and social change in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.

JOSE VICENTE DE BRAGANZA, Secretary-General of the Portuguese Orders of Merit at the Presidency of the Republic (Portugal) for the past 9 years, holds a law degree (Licenciatura em Direito) from the University of Lisbon and made his G.C.E. studies in Great Britain where he studied Economics and Law at the University of London, as an external student, for 3 years. Having a passion for history, specially medieval, he has taken a keen interest in the history of the ancient Portuguese military religious orders and orders of chivalry, having written essays on the subject, namely "The Portuguese Military Orders--a brief account" (1993) and given conferences on the subject, namely in Paris, on October, 1996, at the Museum of the Legion d'Honneur, on "L'Ordre du Christ--un ordre militaire devenu ordre de mirite." In the past three years he has attended academic seminars and conferences on the subject of the military orders and crusades, in Portugal, Spain and Great Britain. At present he is preparing an essay on the evolution of the Portuguese Orders' insignia from medieval times to the present day and a study on the issue of the past (XVIth-XIXth centuries) controversial awards of the Order of Christ by Rome.

DAVID CRAWFORD, Professor of Music History and Musicology, is a specialist in Renaissance sacred music who joined the University of Michigan faculty in 1967 after completing his doctorate at the University of Illinois. He has received a Fulbright for study in Vienna; a University award for distinguished teaching; and research and teaching grants from the U-M Center for Research on Learning and Teaching, the American Council of Learned Societies, the Gladys Delmas Foundation, the American Philosophical Society and the Rackham School of Graduate Studies. Since 1988 he has been the recipient of a major research grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities. His publications include more than 35 articles, reviews, several editions, and two books. His writings deal primarily with manuscripts of Renaissance sacred music and ritual but also with opera, American music and computer applications for music research. ORB is linked to his database, RELICS, Renaissance Liturgical Imprints: A Census.

CYNTHIA J. CYRUS is associate professor of Musicology at the Blair School of Music, Vanderbilt University, where she teaches Music of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, Historical Performance Practices, Women and Music, and other music history courses. She earned her Ph.D. at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1990. Her research covers both the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, with an edition of De tous biens plaine settings and articles on topics such as troubadour and trouv˙re lais and descorts, on performance practice, and most recently on medieval and Renaissance women who owned music books. She is also WebMaster for the International Machaut Society. Her home page provides access to the Machaut pages and to selected links for early music and other topics.

MICHAEL DiMAIO, JR. is Professor of Philosophy at Salve Regina University in Newport, RI. He has a Ph.D. in Classical Studies from the University of Missouri. He has written extensively on the Byzantine historian John Zonaras and the Neo-Flavian Emperors. A full list of his works can be found on his home page(http://www2.ids.net/~mdimaio/home.html) under the heading Opera Minora. He is managing editor and Chairman of the Editorial Board of "De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors"(http://www.salve.edu/~dimaiom/deimprom.html).

W.G. EAST is a priest of the Roman Catholic diocese of Middlesbrough, England, residing in York. He holds the degree of M.A. (in English) and the Diploma in Theology, from Oxford University, and the degrees of M.Phil. (in Medieval Studies) and Ph.D. from Yale. His doctoral thesis was on Geoffrey of Monmouth. He has published books and articles on various aspects of medieval literature, especially Chaucer and Abelard. Recent publications include "This Body of Death: Abelard, Heloise and the Religious Life" in York Studies in Medieval Theology I: Medieval Theology and the Natural Body, edited by Peter Biller and A.J. Minnis, York 1997. A further study of Abelard's poetry is forthcoming in Mittellateinisches Jarbuch. Fr East has taught at Cork, Sunderland and York Universities.

HUGH ELTON is currently Visiting Assistant Professor at Trinity College, Hartford, CT. He wrote his D.Phil. at The Queen's College, Oxford, now published as Warfare in Roman Europe: AD 350-425 (Oxford: OUP, 1996). He has also written a book on The Frontiers of the Roman Empire (London, Batsford/Bloomingon: IUP, 1996) and is currently working on a study of Roman Cilicia.

REGULA MEYER EVITT is an associate professor of English at San Francisco State University. She holds a Ph.D. in English from the University of Virginia (1992). Her forthcoming book, co-authored with Monica Potkay, is entitled Minding the Body: Women and Literature in the Middle Ages, 800- 1500. She is also the author of "'Vos inquam convenio, O Judaeis': Eschatology and Liturgical Anti-Judaism in the Medieval Prophet Plays," [forthcoming article in The Apocalyptic Year 1000, ed. Richard Landes and David Van Meter]; "Undoing the Dramatic History of the Riga Ludus Prophetarum," in Comparative Drama 24 (1990/9)1; and "Musical Structure in the Second Shepherds' Play," in Comparative Drama 22 (1988/89). Her research interests include medieval drama, anti-semitism, mysticism, and Marie de France.

JEFFREY FISHER received his PhD in Medieval Studies from Yale University, with a dissertation entitled, "Jean Gerson's Meditation on Glory: A Study in the Semiotics of Medieval Negative Theology." He currently builds websites to pay his bills while continuing to pursue scholarship and teach the odd course here or there. His main interests are in mystical theology, apophaticism, scholasticism, and the religious or mystical dimensions of virtual ideologies (i.e. - cyberpunk and the like).

ALAN FOREY has taught in the universities of Oxford, St. Andrews, and Durham and is now retired. He has a D.Phil. from Oxford and has published widely on the history of the military orders and on other aspects of the history of the crusades and of medieval Spain. His books include The Templars in the Corona de Aragon and The Military Orders from the Twelfth to the Early Fourteenth Centuries . A study of the fall of the Templars in Aragon will shortly be completed.

PAUL J. GANS is Professor of Chemistry at New York University. His Ph.D. is in chemical physics and was awarded in 1959. Although his primary teaching and research is in theoretical chemistry, he has actively pursued a life-long interest in things medieval. These interests lead to his teaching a course on Medieval Technology in the NYU Medieval and Renaissance Studies (MARS) program. His joining the MARS program came about in a fairly unusual manner. When in Notre Dame in Paris with a group of NYU scholarship students, he was asked how the great blocks of stone were lifted during the construction of the Cathedral. The other faculty person on the trip happened to be the co-director of the NYU Medieval program. His explanation brought forth the suggestion that he ought to develop a course in Medieval Technology, which he did. The course has been taught for five years now and has been quite successful. Since the inception of the course, Prof. Gans has become a member of several scholarly medieval groups and is an annual attendee at Kalamazoo, where he is one of the more avid listeners in a wide range of sessions.

REBECCA L.R. GARBER received her PhD in German literature from the University of Michigan in 1999. Her dissertation, "Women Writing Women's Lives: Religious Texts by Medieval German Women Writers (1100-1475)" examines the influence of genre on representations of gender, gender roles, and idealized feminine images in works authored by women. From 1998-2001 she was a member of the Department of German and Slavic Studies at Wayne State University, and has continued her research on the intersections between gender and genre theories in medieval literature. She currently serves as the German Page Editor of the ORB.

KATHERINE GILL, editor of Matrix, is Professor of Historical Studies at Yale Divinity School and the Project Historian for the Vatican Archives Project, an inventory and guide to all document series in the Archivio Segreto Vaticano and the Archives of Propaganda Fide. She received her undergraduate training at Mount Holyoke College, a Masters of Theological Studies from Harvard Divinity School, and a Scuola di Paleografia, Diplomatica e Archivista from the Vatican Archives School before receiving a PhD in History from Princeton University. She has published articles and reviews centered on the study of women religious in medieval and early modern Europe, including "Open Monasteries for Women in Modern Italy." in The Crannied Wall, edited by Craig Monson, University of Michigan Press, 1992, and "Scandala: Controversies concerning Clausura and Women's Religious Communities in Late Medieval Italy" in Christendom and its Discontents: Seclusion, Persecution, and Rebellion, 1000-1500, eds. Scott Waugh and Peter Diehl, Cambridge University Press.

ANNE GILMOUR-BRYSON received her M.A. and Ph.D from the Institute of Medieval Studies at the University of Montreal in Canada. After several years specializing in the computer treatment of medieval texts and organizing computer sessions at conferences, she took up a teaching post at the University of Melbourne, Australia, where she became coordinator of Medieval Studies and taught medieval history at all levels. She has published The Trial of the Templars in the Papal State and the Abruzzi (Vatican Library, 1982) and The Trial of the Templars in Cyprus (Brill, 1998), edited several books, and published widely on the Templars and the Military Orders. Recent Ph.D students she supervised worked on the Cistercian Order in England, Arthur and Robin Hood, and English Fifteenth-Century Chronicles.

SUSAN K. HAGEN is the Mary Collett Munger Professor of English and chair of the Division of Humanities at Birmingham Southern College. She received her Ph. D. from the University of Virginia in 1976. Her publications include a book on Allegorical Remembrance: A Study of the Pilgrimage of the Life of Man as a Medieval Treatise on Seeing and Remembering (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1990). She has also published many articles on Middle English literature and Chaucer, several of which appear on our Chaucer page. Her other research areas encompass the romance genre, feminist theology and teaching technologies.

JONATHAN HARRIS is Research Fellow in the Department of History, University College London. He wrote his Ph.D. thesis at Royal Holloway College, University of London, on Greek refugees and immigrants in Western Europe during the fifteenth century (1993). It has now been published as Greek Emigres in the West, 1400-1520 (Camberley: Porphyrogenitus, 1995). Among his other recent publications are: `Two Byzantine craftsmen in fifteenth century London', Journal of Medieval History 21 (1995), 387-403; `Byzantine medicine and medical practitioners in the West: the case of Michael Dishypatos', Revue des Études Byzantines 54 (1996), 201-20.

LUCIA GUZZI HARRISON is an Assistant Professor of Spanish, Italian and Latin at Southeastern Louisiana University. She received the "Laurea" in Foreign Languages and Literatures from the University of Verona, Italy (1986) and the Ph.D. in Spanish from the University of Kentucky(1995). Her research interests include medieval and renaissance Spanish, Italian and Latin Literatures, with emphasis on religious issues. She is presently working on a book on Italian and Spanish medieval women saints and nuns.

THOMAS HEAD is Professor of History at Hunter College and the Graduate Center, the City University of New York. He received his PhD from Harvard University in 1985 and has previously taught at Washington University, Yale University, and the Claremont Colleges. He is the author of Hagiography and the Cult of Saints. The Diocese of OrlÈans, 800-1200, Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought, fourth series 14 (Cambridge, 1990)and of many articles in such journals as Viator, Speculum, and Analecta Bollandiana. He has also edited (with Richard Landes) The Peace of God: Social Violence and Religious Response in France Around the Year 1000 (Ithaca, NY, 1992); (with Thomas Noble) Soldiers of Christ: Saints' Lives from Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages (University Park, PA, 1994); and Medieval Hagiography: An Anthology (New York, 1999).

TAMSIN HEKALA is a doctoral candidate in history at UCLA. Her dissertation, "Changing Landscapes: Social Structures of Medieval Iceland", examines the social changes reflected in Icelandic law and public documents during the Commonwealth Period (875-1265). She has published several articles with Paul D. Buell on historical methodology for non historians. Most recently she was on the editorial staff of an interdisciplinary journal, Crossroads; has developed courses for the Continuing Education department at WWU, and is presently involved in editing her dissertation.

JOHN WILLIAM HOUGHTON is a member of the English Department at Mary Institute and Saint Louis Country Day School. A contributor to the HarperCollins Encyclopedia of Catholicism, he has published articles on art history, theology, ethics and literature; his dissertation, Bede's Exegetical Theology: Ideas of the Church in the Acts Commentaries of St. Bede the Venerable, studied the way in which textual commentary was a way of "doing theology" for England's only Doctor of the Church. Dr. Houghton was educated at Harvard College (English, A.B. '75), Indiana University (English, A.M. '77), Yale Divinity School (Systematic Theology, M.A.R. '89), Berkeley Divinity School at Yale (Diploma in Anglican Studies '89), and the Medieval Institute at Notre Dame (Medieval Studies, M.M.S. '91, Ph.D. '94).

PAUL HYAMS was born, brought up and educated in England. He remains a grateful, occasionally critical U.K. citizen and a happy alien in the U.S., though he has functioned very happily at Cornell since 1989. The previous twenty years he was a "Don" at Oxford, teaching Medieval History. He has published mainly in the field of Legal History and on the many kinds of searching question that involve Law or can spring off from answerable problems of Law. Most of his publications are article length. Some of the most palatable for human consumption are: "The Common Law and the French Connection" (1982) proving that English (and Anglo-American) Law started in Western France; Henry II and Ganelon" (1983) on the contribution of fairy stories to the study of trial procedur;, "The Strange Story of Thomas of Elderfield" (1986) on Blinding and Castration; "What did Edwardian Villagers Mean by Law?", which examines legal culture in the sense of a popular sense of what Law is and makes a case for village visions going far beyond going beyond the manorial court; and "What Did Henry III of England Think in Bed (And in French) About Kingship and Anger?" whose subject matter ought to be self-explanatory. There has also been a book, King, Lords and Peasants in Medieval England on serfdom law and another, Rancor and Reconciliation is on the way about all kinds of nastiness, from Blood Feuds onwards, and how the men and women of the middle ages tried to deal with them.

JOHN ILLSLEY holds an M.Litt. degree. His primary research interest is in the history and archaeology of boats. His publications include "Parliamentary Elections in the Reign of Edward the First," Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research; with D.C. Jones, "The Background and Antecedents of the Welsh Institute of Maritime Archaeology and History," International Journal of Nautical Archaeology; "Admiral Lord Edward Russell and the building of St. Paul's Cathedral," Mariner's Mirror; and numerous other articles on nautical history and archaeology. He is an instructor at the University of Wales, Bangor.

SKIP KNOX is an adjunct professor of History at Boise State University in Boise, Idaho. He received his PhD in Early Modern European History from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst in 1984, and his Master's work was done at the University of Utah in Medieval History. His dissertation is on the guilds of Augsburg in the early 17th century. He has worked since 1984 as a computer consultant for Boise State University, providing training and other services for the faculty there. He has taught virtual courses over the Internet on Western Civilization and on the Renaissance.

YURI KOSZARYCZ is a Senior Lecturer in Ethics and Religion Studies within the School of Theology at the Australian Catholic University, McAuley Campus, situated in Brisbane, Australia. He has attained philosophy and theology degrees at Universities in Rome and in Innsbruck. He completed postgraduate studies in Education at the University of New England (Armidale) and at the University of Queensland. He lectures in Ethics, Bioethics, and Church History.

K.A.H.W. LEENDERS is a free time historical geographer and is working as a demographer at the provincial government of Zuid-Holland in The Hague, The Netherlands. His region of special interest is a more or less square area (1400 sq. mi.) east of the line between Antwerp and Rotterdam. In 1985 he received the Belgian historical award "Pro Civitate" for his study of landscape changes and economic development in connection with the anthropogene disapearance of a Holocene peatlayer in this region. This study was published in 1989 as Verdwenen Venen. Een onderzoek naar de ligging en exploitatie van thans verdwenen venen in het gebied tussen Antwerpen, Turnhout, Geertruidenberg en Willemstad,1250-1750. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Amsterdam in 1996 for a study of the history of this area during the Middle Ages (400 - 1350 AD).

JURIS G. LIDAKA has been recently working on Bartholomaeus Anglicus' encyclopedia De proprietatibus rerum and the magical Liber de angelis, with related interests in medieval education, manuscript production, popular culture, and more. His research has wandered around 15th-century English verse, Osbern Bokenham, and John Trevisa, to whose translation of Richard FitzRalph's Defensio curatorum he hopes to return soon. He is presently an associate professor at West Virginia State College, and received his PhD from Northern Illinois University.

OTFRIED LIEBERKNECHT received his M.A. (1987, French and German philology) and Ph.D. (1995, Romance philology) at the Freie Universität Berlin. Was assistant in teaching and research at the FUB's department of Romance philology (1988-93). Research interests include the history of medieval hermeneutics and commentary traditions in general, and more specifically the adoption of biblical allegoresis and numerology in medieval French, Italian and Latin literature, as treated in his dissertation on Dante (Untersuchungen zum Problem der Allegorie in Dantes «Commedia», 1995, publication forthcoming); Occidental traditions on Muhammed and Islam (Zur Rezeption der arabischen Apologie des Pseudo-Kindi in der lateinischen Mohammedliteratur des Mittelalters, 1994); and the history of heresies and inquisition in Italy (Die «Historia fratris Dulcini heresiarche». Einleitung, Übersetzung und Kommentar, 1991, unpublished). He will serve as editor of the ORB's section on Dante.

JANET LOENGARD is a Professor of History at Moravian College (and currently adjunct professor at Lehigh University, as both institutions are members of a consortium, the Lehigh Valley Association of Independent Colleges). She received the Ph.D. from Columbia University in 1970. She has published a volume, London Viewers and their Certificates 1509-1558, (London Record Society, 1989), and articles including "The Assize of Nuisance: Origins of an Action at Common Law" (1978); "An Elizabethan Lawsuit: John Brayne, his Carpenter, and the Building of the Red Lion Theatre" (1983); "Of the Gift of her Husband: English Dower and its Consequences in the Year 1200" (1985); "Legal History and the Medieval Englishwoman: A Fragmented View" (1986); "'Legal History and the Medieval Englishwoman' Revisited: Some New Directions" (1990); "Rationabilis Dos: Magna Carta and the Widow's 'Fair Share' in the Earlier Thirteenth Century" (1993); plus review essays and book reviews. She is currently working on the (English) legal concept of nuisance in the medieval and early modern periods and on paraphernalia, essentially between 1250 and 1750.

TOM LOMBARDI received an M.A. in History from Fordham University where he pursued research in monastic culture and medieval apprenticeship. Tom is currently both a graduate student in Computer Science at Pace University and the Webmaster for the newly created Medieval Sign Language Homepage (located at: csis.pace.edu/~lombardi). His long-term goals include: obtaining a Ph.D.in History, continuing his research on medieval sign language, and combining the disciplines of History and Computer Science.

KAROLINE J. MANNY is Assistant Professor of Spanish at Rollins College in Winter Park Florida. She specializes in Medieval and Renaissance Drama. Dr. Manny has published one article ("The Staging of Mira de Amescua's El esclavo del demonio." Torre de papel 2(Fall 1992): 54-60)on Spanish drama and has presented at numerous conferences on the topic of Medieval Drama. She is currently preparing an anthology of Medieval Spanish Drama.

SCOTT McLETCHIE received his M.A. in medieval history from The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, in 1991; he is a Ph.D. candidate at U-M, working on a dissertation titled "Monuments More Lasting than Bronze: Medieval Royal Biogrpahy in England, France and Germany, c. 1040 - 1200". He currrently teaches world history at the Louise S. McGehee School in New Orleans, LA; before that he taught world civilization and medieval history at Loyola University, New Orleans, where he also served as the history department's webmaster. He has also contributed several translations to the Internet Medieval Sourcebook.

SHARON MICHALOVE is assistant to the chair in the Department of History at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). In that capacity she advises undergraduate students and oversees the undergraduate history program. She received her Ph.D. in the history of education at UIUC in 1996. Her advisor is Paul Violas and her dissertation is entitled "'O Chyldren! geue eare your duties to learne': the education of upper-class Englishwomen 1399- 1530." Her publications include many journal articles, and she is co-editor with A. Compton Reeves, Ohio University, of Estrangement, Enterprise and Education: Chapters in 15th Century English History including the authored article "The Education of Upper-Class Women in Late Medieval England." She is chairman of the American Branch of the Richard III Society and the session organizer for the White Hart Society. She is one of the editors of the online discussion group, H-Albion.

JAMES MILLS is retired from teaching chemical analysis for 30 years at a college of pharmacy. On a trip to Denmark, he became interested in Danish medieval wall paintings. When he returned to NYC, he found nothing, in English, on these paintings. He was convinced that the challenge of research in a new field would keep him intellectually active and contributing information after he retired. For the next 20 years he accumulated material on Danish medieval art. He has presented papers on these materials at SUNY-Albany, SUNY-Buffalo, SUNY- Stonybrook, the MLA, the Medieval Congress at Western Michigan University, and at informal talks at Elderhostels. He has published articles in ICO and EIRE- Ireland. The Medieval Institute at Western Michigan University published An Iconographic Index to Danmarks Kirker, 100-1600, Parts I and II. in 1991. He has authored or co-authored papers in five other academic fields.

LESLIE ZARKER MORGAN is Associate Professor of Modern Languages and Literatures (Italian and French) at Loyola College in Maryland. She received her PhD from Yale University in Italian Language and Literature, producing an edition and concordance of Ogier le danois, part of the Franco-Italian Geste Francor, as her doctoral dissertation. She is working on an edition of the entire manuscript, to appear with Mellen Press. Franco-Italian is not well known outside of a small group and, to her knowledge, has never been translated into English, although portions have been translated into Modern Standard Italian. She has worked extensively with Franco-Italian and with second-language acquisition; language interference (modern and historical) is a particular interest of hers.

STEPHEN MORILLO is Associate Professor of History at Wabash College, where he teaches medieval, early modern and world history. He received a DPhil from Oxford in 1985, and is the author of a number of articles and of Warfare under the Anglo-Norman Kings, 1066-1135 (Boydell and Brewer, 1994), and editor of The Battle of Hastings: Sources and Interpretations (B&B,;1995). He is currently coauthoring a military world history textbook to be published by McGraw Hill in 1998. When he's not being scholarly, Morillo pursues his other life as a painter and cartoonist. Several of his medieval cartoons appear in ORB. To see more of his work, visit his Homepage.

LUCY MOYE is Associate Professor of History at Hillsdale College in Michigan, where she has taught since 1988. Her long-term research goal is to produce an edition of accounts and charters from the estates of the Mowbray dukes of Norfolk in the fifteenth century, a project which grew out of her dissertation on Mowbray finances (Ph.D., Duke University, 1985).

HELEN NICHOLSON is lecturer in medieval history at the University of Wales, Cardiff. She is the author of Templars, Hospitallers and Teutonic Knights: Images of the Military Orders, 1128-1291 (1993), and Chronicle of the Third Crusade: a translation of the Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi (1997) and is currently editing the proceedings of the second international conference on the Military Orders: The Military Ordersvol. 2: Welfare and Warfare, which will be published by Ashgate Publishing later this year. Her research centres on the Crusades and the history of the Military Orders; she also researches into women in medieval religion, and into medieval heresy.

THOMAS F. X. NOBLE is Professor of History at the University of Virginia where has has taught since 1980. He earned his Ph.D. in 1974 from Michigan State University where he was a student of Richard E. Sullivan. Noble teaches and has written about the late antique and early medieval periods. His particular interests lie in papal and Carolingian history. Noble's first book, The Republic of St. Peter, 1984, treated the origins of papal temporal rule. He has also published two dozen articles, co-authored a Western Civilization textbook, and co-edited two volumes. Noble has been a Fulbright Fellow, a fellow (twice) of the National Endowment for the Humanities, a recipient of grants from the American Council of Learned Societies and the American Philosophical Society. A life member of Clare Hall, Cambridge, Noble was in 1994 a member of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. He is currently finishing a book on early medieval controversies over sacred art.

COL. (RET.) ERIK P. OPSAHL finished his PhD in medieval history at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in spring 1994. The title of his dissertation was "The Hospitallers, Templars, and Teutonic Knights in the Morea after the Fourth Crusade." His 1972 master's thesis at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee was titled "Hermann of Salza, GrandMaster of the Teutonic Knights, 1210-1239." He teaches Latin and ancient and medieval history at Luther Preparatory School in Watertown, Wisconsin. He serves ORB as one of the editors of the Military Orders section.

A. COMPTON REEVES holds a Ph.D. from Emory University. He is the author of Newport Lordship, 1317-1536; Lancastrian Englishmen; Purveyors and Purveyance for the Lancastrian and Yorkist Kings; The Marcher Lords; and Pleasures and Pastimes in Medieval England. He is the editor of The Wyclyf Tradition by the late Vaclav Mudroch. Reeves has also published a number of articles on late- medieval England and the medieval March of Wales. Reeves is a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society, and a member of several historical societies, including the Medieval Academy of America, the Canterbury and York Society, the Ecclesiastical History Society, and the American Historical Association. He is also the Past Chairman of the American Branch of the Richard III Society. Dr. Reeves is Professor of History at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, and is the editor of the Late Medieval England segment of ORB.

CLIFFORD J. ROGERS is an Associate Editor of Res Militaria, the new medieval military history journal which is to be published starting in 2001 by Boydell and Brewer, as well as Assistant Professor of History at the United States Military Academy (West Point), where he has taught since 1995. He has previously been an Olin Postdoctoral Fellow at Yale University, and spent a year at the Institute of Historical Research, London, on a Fulbright fellowship. He holds a Ph.D. in History from the Ohio State University, and received his B.A. from Rice University, where he triple-majored in Economics, History, and Policy Studies. He has edited two books, The Military Revolution Debate and The Wars of Edward III: Sources and Interpretations, and his monograph, War Cruel and Sharp: English Strategy under Edward III, 1327-1360, will be published soon by Boydell and Brewer. He has also co-edited Civilians in the Path of War, forthcoming from University of Nebraska Press. His articles (including winners of the Alexander Prize and the Moncado Prize) have appeared in Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, The Journal of Military History, Northern History, and War in History, among other places. Professor Rogers is also the author of the section on ˝The Age of the Hundred Years Warţ in the recent Oxford University Press history, Medieval Warfare.

WARREN SANDERSON is professor of the History of Art and Architecture at Concordia University, Montreal. His Ph.D is from the Institute of Fine Arts of NYU. He has published numerous books (Die Mittelalterlichen Krypten von St. Maximin in Trier; Monastic Reform in Lorraine and the Architecture of the Outer Crypt 950-1100; and his latest, Early Christian Buildings 300-600: A Graphic Introduction), articles and reviews on medieval art and architecture. His other books include The International Handbook of Contemporary Developments in Architecture, and his articles range from Renaissance art to contemporary art and architecture He is presently finishing a book entitled Carolingian, Ottonian and Romanesque Buildings, 760-1130: A Graphic Introduction. He acts as Art and Architecture Editor for ORB.

FRANK SCHAER began his career as a classicist before moving to medieval studies, and Middle English in particular. He presently teaches English and Latin in the Medieval Studies Department at the Central European University, Budapest. His research interests include medieval and later Latin, text-editing, and the legend of the biblical Magi.

WILLIAM SCHIPPER is an associate professor of English at Memorial University in St. John's, Newfoundland. He received his Ph.D. in English from Queens in 1981. His publications include works on the Worcestor glossator, Old English manuscripts, the Benedictional of St. AEthelwold, and Rabanus Maurus. He also serves as moderator of ANSAXNET.

CAROLYN P. SCHRIBER is an associate professor of history at Rhodes College in Memphis, Tennessee. She holds a PH.D. in history from the University of Colorado (1988). In addition to several journal articles, her publications include The Dilemma of Arnulf of Lisieux (Indiana, 1990) and The Letter Collections of Arnulf of Lisieux (Mellen, 1997). Her research interests extend from twelfth-century Normandy to the fifteenth century and the role of Pierre Cauchon during and after the trial of Joan of Arc. She is the current editor of ORB.

CHRISTOPHER A. SNYDER, Acting Chair of the Department of History and Politics at Marymount University in Arlington, Virginia, is the section editor for Sub-Roman Britain and the Medieval Celtic Fringe. He received his Ph.D. in Medieval History from Emory University in 1994 and was a Visiting Assistant Professor at both Emory and the College of William and Mary before coming to Marymount. His research fields are the history and archaeology of sub-Roman Britain (AD 400-600), the culture of the medieval "Celtic fringe," and medieval Arthurian literature. His publications include Sub-Roman Britain (AD 400-600): A Gazetteer of Sites (Oxford, 1996), and An Age of Tyrants: Britain and the Britons, AD 400-600 (Penn State, 1998). Chris serves on the Editorial Boards of History Reviews On-Line and The Heroic Age, and is a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.

MICHAEL STOLLER is History Bibliographer at Columbia University Library and Curator of Columbia's Ancient &;Medieval Studies Reading Room. He holds a Ph.D. from Columbia, where he also teaches periodically in the History and Religion Departments. He is currently researching biographies of the Emperor Henry IV and the Renaissance scholar, Paul Oskar Kristeller.

KATHRYN ANN TAGLIA is a sessional instructor in the Women's Studies Programme at the University of Northern British Columbia. She is working on her PhD for the Centre for the Medieval Studies at the University of Toronto. Her dissertation explores the social and cultural constructions of childhood in the later Middle Ages. "The Cultural Construction of Childhood: Baptism, Communion, and Confirmation" will be published this spring in Women, Marriage, and Family in Medieval Christendom: Essays in Memory of Michael M. Sheehan, C.S.B. (Western Michigan Press).

DAVID RONALD TURNER, MLitt, Byzantine Studies. David was born in England, spent his childhood in Greece, received his schooling in New Zealand and attended university in England. He has lived in Greece for almost 20 years. His interests in the East Roman (or Byzantine) empire extend to Byzantine art, architecture and the Orthodox church and theology, all of which he includes in the classes he teaches for Beaver College Study in Greece. David has also directed many groups of students and professionals around many of the Byzantine and medieval sites of Greece and in the Balkans, Ukraine and the Black Sea. David is equally happy in a library and has done extensive work in the archives of the Gennadeion Library in Athens, particularly on the life of the archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann, and is preparing a book on Schliemann for publication. David also works as a professional translator. His work is published in a variety of periodicals and magazines on matters of current interest. He enjoys philosophy and 19th and 20th century music. He has worked for two years as the Athens consultant for the English publication Opera.

MARTIN L. WARREN is a Visiting Professor at the University of St. Thomas, St. Paul, Minnesota. He received his PhD in English from the University of Minnesota in 1995. Dr. Warren is also a Catholic priest, ordained in 1978 for the Archdiocese of Birmingham, England. He has lived and worked in the USA since 1981. In 1983, he received a Master's degree in theology from St. John's University, Collegeville. For Rev. Dr. Warren the interpenetration of literature and theology is what is most fascinating.

MAX WITHERS used to be interested in medieval religious women, but has lately started worrying about the social and economic history of the eleventh century. He hates computers but can't escape them. He expects to recieve his Ph.D. from the History Department of the University of California, Berkeley, sometime in the next millenium.

SUSAN UDRY received her PH.D. in Comparative Literature from Indiana University in 2001. Her dissertation examines the cultural theory of spectacle relative to the representation of women's domestic roles in male-autored texts from France of the later fourteenth century. She is currently writing about the theme of spiritual marriage in the work of Philippe de Mèziëres and its connection to crusade ideology of the later Middle Ages.

RICHARD J. UTZ received his Dr. phil. in English and German Philology from the University of Regensburg, Germany. He is an Associate Professor and English Graduate Coordinator at the University of Northern Iowa where he teaches courses in Medieval Literature and Literary Studies. His research interests include Late Medieval English Literature (esp. the correspondences between philosophical and literary discourses), Medievalism (the reception of medieval culture in postmedieval times), Reception theories, and the history of English Studies as a discipline. He is editor of Disputatio: An International Transdisciplinary Journal of the Late Middle Ages (Northwestern UP) and of Prolepsis: The TŸbingen Review of English Studies. His publications include Literarischer Nominalismus im SpStmittelalter (1990), Literary Nominalism and the Theory of Rereading Late Medieval Texts (1995), and Nominalism and Literary Discourse (1997).

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The contents of ORB are copyright © 1995-1999 Laura V. Blanchard and Carolyn Schriber except as otherwise indicated herein.